Written by Tristan Grannum
Professional dancers are usually known for their “out of this world” flexibility and strength. Almost every dancer at some point in their training had to work towards increasing their flexibility. Stretching is one of the most important activities an individual can do to prevent future injuries and increase overall mobility. Stretching benefits your physical health and can relieve soreness and pain of the body. If you are an active person you should never take stretching for granted.
One common misconception of stretching, is that before a ballet class or a workout a person should do stretches that push the limits of their natural flexibility. Practicing splits, or kicking your leg forcefully are not good exercises to do pre-ballet or pre-workout. Static stretching is not considered healthy if you are doing it before your physical activity. Before you begin doing a strenuous activity your main focus should be making sure your entire body is warm. Warming up is essential for stretching. Walking, jogging, jumping jacks, and planks are all exercises you can do that will help get your heart rate up, activate your core, and warm up your entire body.
Each person possesses different levels of flexibility and mobility. Some areas of the body tend to be tighter than others. Focus more time on the areas that need improvement. If you tend to be more flexible in a specific area of the body, focus on building strength in that area.
Stretching is not an easy task however it is useful and necessary for flexibility improvement and overall wellness. Always make sure you have a specific stretching plan which include which parts of the body you will be focusing on, the different stretching exercises you are going to perform, as well as the amount of repetitions for each specific exercise. If you start to feel pain during a stretch, Stop! If the pain persists consult your physician or physical therapist. Stretching can be loads of fun and with consistency, you will start to meet your flexibility goals.
Bueno, Leah. “Could A Tight Back Be Limiting Your Flexibility?” Dance Magazine, Dance Magazine, 6 July 2017, www.dancemagazine.com/tight-back-exercises-2453923313.html.
Wingenroth, Lauren. “The Dancer's Ultimate Guide to Stretching.” Dance Magazine, Dance Magazine, 20 Sept. 2020, www.dancemagazine.com/stretches-for-dancers-2639955572.html.
Written by Robyn Justum:
Whether accustomed to Charles Perrault’s original fairytale, the Brothers Grimm cautionary tale (no fairy godmothers there!), Disney’s 1950 cartoon, or the 1997 Rodgers and Hammerstein movie musical starring Brandy and Whitney Houston, most are familiar with the story of Cinderella. In the spirit of pumpkin season and bringing a little extra magic to October, we are happy to introduce Cinderella as this month’s theme for Cardio Ballet!
The ballet version of Cinderella has been reimagined countless times over the years. The first documented versions date back to 1813 followed by a London production in 1822. The one commonality that most productions have is the music of Sergei Prokofiev, composed in the early 1940’s to complement Nikolai Volkov’s libretto (storyline). The premiere of Prokofiev’s composition was in 1945 at the Bolshoi Theatre with choreography by Rostislav Zakharov.
Prokofiev began his score in 1941 but did not complete until 1944 due to World War II and his work on the opera, War and Peace. He writes of Cinderella, “... I see Cinderella not only as a fairy-tale character but also as a real person, feeling, experiencing, and moving among us...What I wished to express above all in the music of Cinderella was the poetic love of Cinderella and the Prince, the birth and flowering of that love, the obstacles in its path and finally the dream fulfilled.”
There were earlier versions of the ballet and earlier scores created based on the plot, including an 1893 premiere at the Marinsky Theatre featuring choreography by Enrico Cecchetti and Lev Ivanov, supervised by Marius Petipa (Sleeping Beauty, Swan Lake, The Nutcracker), with music by Baron Boris Fitinhoff-Schell. The lead role of Cinderella was danced by Italian ballerina Pierina Legnani, and this version marks the first performance of a ballet in Russia to include the execution of 32 consecutive fouettées.
A few years after Prokofiev’s premiere, Frederick Ashton choreographed his own version to the score for the Sadlers’ Wells Ballet, adding a comedic layer that is often associated with the roles of the step-sisters. Ashton premiered his ballet in 1948 at the Royal Opera House, with Ashton himself dancing the role of one of the two step-sisters. Ashton’s Cinderella has been performed by many companies, including Joffrey Ballet, Boston Ballet, and American Ballet Theatre (ABT).
Since the debut of Zakharov’s choreography, there have been many interpretations beyond that of Ashton’s. In 1979, Ben Stevenson introduced his version as a pas de deux between Cinderella and her prince. In this premiere, the prince was danced by Kevin Mckenzie, now artistic director of ABT. Stevenson later went on to premiere the full-length production with Houston Ballet and later, in 1996, with ABT. The ABT premiere included Julie Kent as Cinderella and Maxim Belotserkovsky as her prince. ABT premiered Ashton’s version in 2014, featuring James Whiteside as the prince, Veronika Part as the fairy godmother, and Hee Seo as Cinderella.
In 2012, Christopher Wheeldon premiered his own version of the fairytale in Amsterdam as a co-production between the San Francisco Ballet and the Dutch National Ballet. It made its U.S. premiere the following year in San Francisco. Wheeldon is an internationally recognized English choreographer, formerly of New York City Ballet, where he was a soloist and later the company’s first-ever Artist-in-Residence and first Resident Choreographer. He is also known for his Tony-award winning choreography of An American in Paris: The Musical. Wheeldon’s Cinderella is described by Jennie Scholick as follows:
“This ballet leaves behind the fairy godmothers and talking mice in favor of a delightfully human story full of fabulous visual effects. With fantastic sets and costumes by Julian Crouch, magical projections by Daniel Brodie, and breathtaking puppetry designed by MacArthur Foundation Fellow Basil Twist to put a new “twist” on an old tale, Wheeldon updates this timeless tale for modern audiences of every age...While the ballet has some similarities to the animated classic, Wheeldon chose elements from both the Charles Perrault fairy-tale (the one the movie pulls from) and the Brothers Grimm, which has a few darker tones.”
As noted above, beyond the music, a common trait you’ll find in different productions is the emphasis on visual elements, including impressive sets, lavish costumes, and lots of special effects. In company program bills, the ballet’s production value is often described as “ornate,” “magical,” “innovative,” etc.
Other notable interpretations include Rudolf Nureyev’s for the Paris Opera Ballet (1986), Kent Stowell’s for Pacific Northwest Ballet (1994), Septime Webre’s for Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre (2003), and Edwaard Liang’s for Ballet Met (2015).
Written by Tristan Grannum:
Ever wondered what it’s like to take a professional Company Ballet Class? What we feel and endure physically and mentally?
A normal rehearsal day for a professional ballet dancer usually begins at 9 or 10 in the morning with a Company Ballet Class. Company Class is a daily ritual for most concert dancers. Class is the fuel we need to get through an arduous rehearsal day. It gives us a moment to brush up on our technique, it allows us to test different steps, and prepares us to “get in the zone”. The studio is your home and your colleagues are your closest friends. Each company dancer has a prescribed barre spot - a spot they have individually chosen where they feel most comfortable to take class. Some choose to have a spot near the accompanist, some near a significant other, or many choose a barre spot where they look the most aesthetically pleasing in the studio mirror.
Many dancers before the start of class have a routine that they follow. Depending on the individual, this routine may be comprised of a set of conditioning exercises (planks, pushups, stretching). For other dancers just lying on the floor in their warm-ups, resting while listening to music is their routine. The dancers you share the same barre with are referred to as your “barre buddies.” You build a unique bond with this set of dancers because each person looks at one another throughout class, either trying to figure out the exercise or just a simple facial expression to exude their current emotional state. Throughout the start of barre there are always ‘inside jokes’ among many of the dancers. It could go from someone innocently messing up the combination in front of you, to the director or ballet master/mistress making general comments criticizing the technique of the company. During many of the initial barre exercises many male dancers have push up contests while the director is teaching an exercise. You may also see a female dancer looking in the mirror fixing her hair bun with pins.
Professional ballet dancers have strenuous rehearsal days, and many incur injuries. Injured dancers usually modify a ballet exercise to their current physical ability or may just opt out of doing the entire exercise and stretch. This distinctly contrasts a typical class for a ballet student. As a professional you are allowed to determine which exercises are or are not necessary and beneficial for your body. Usually by the end of barre a majority of the dancers who were wearing warm-ups - booties, sweaters, and sweatpants - are now in a leotard and shorts or tights. Each dancer showcases their individuality through their dance attire - Some dancers follow the classic dance attire style and others go against the norm and wear unconventional dance outfits such as athletic shorts, scarves, or colorful tank tops.
At the start of center several female dancers change from soft ballet shoes into pointe shoes. Again, the decision to wear pointe shoes for center work depends on each individual dancer’s needs that particular day. Center work allows the dancers to move large in a musically dynamic way, akin to how they would dance in a rehearsal. Professional ballet dancers are not as confined to their technique in center work as they are at barre - they are allowed artistic freedom while still presenting a suitable professional level of technique. Dancers usually converse with one another in the back of the room as they wait for their group to do an exercise. There is sense of camraderie in the studio as a fellow dancer executes a step beautifully, and a sense of supportive competition for their colleagues.
Company class usually ends with a grand allegro or a grand pirouette exercise. These exercises bring out the best dancing of every dancer in the company. You see female dancers execute difficult traditional male steps, male dancers jumping with great ballon, and an elevated performance quality from everyone. At the culmination of company class you thank your accompanist and teacher and suddenly you are ready for your rehearsals.